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Read Management Principles for Health Professionals PDF - by Joan Gratto Liebler Jones & Bartlett Learning | Management Principles for Hea. Management Principles for Health Professionals Sixth Edition Joan Gratto Liebler , MA, MPA, RHIA Professor Emeritus Health Information Management Temple. Management Principles for Health Professionals Fifth Edition Joan Gratto Liebler, MA, MPA, RHIA Professor Emeritus, Health Information Management Temple.
The real values of an organization are those that actually govern its behavior and decision-making processes, whether they are formally stated or not.
Strategy Formulation The second phase of SP has 5 stages. First Stage: Analyzing the External Environment This analysis provides information on everything external to the organization that can influence it, but which the organization cannot change. They should be segregated using the criteria appropriate to each case demographic, socioeconomic, etc.
It may be of interest to include in the client category other bodies relevant to the HO setting, such as the center's management or the clinical services that refer patients or receive them. Competitors are a major source of learning for the HO. Recently, some providers have attempted to occupy a significant position in the production network in genuine collaboration with their clients to establish long-term partnerships that benefit both parties. The HO must clearly identify and understand their objectives and timing, and also understand the circumstances surrounding the activity to deal with expectations.
In addition to this static description, Porter 11 proposes a more dynamic complementary analysis, which considers 5 environmental aspects: a rivalry between competitors in the sector; b entry barriers to the sector, their importance and characteristics; c the threat of alternative products or services; d supplier bargaining power; and e client bargaining power.
Second Stage: Analyzing the Internal Environment This analysis provides information on everything relevant that has occurred and occurs within the HO.
Health Management, Ethics and Research Module: 7. Principles of Healthcare Ethics
It is accepted that the HO has the complete ability to act, transform and change its internal environment. Organizational resources may not be analyzed in sufficient depth, which would be a waste of the organization's enormous potential for improvement.
If the question arises of whether to include this aspect in the environmental analysis certain regulations cannot be changed from within the organization , the answer is that there is no methodological obstacle to doing so, although the impression must be avoided that nothing can be done about them, which is often not true.
It is important that the analysis is conducted over a long enough period to detect trends that may motivate taking strategic decisions. This analysis has to be addressed from the perspective of the quantity, quality and cost of production; comparing the HO's data to standard data and data from competitors is of maximum utility.
The analysis of activity should not simply produce an avalanche of data but must be synthesized to highlight what is relevant and bring out any need to take strategic decisions. The validation of the current list of services, defined as the set of different services offered to the clients, is an aspect that is often glossed over in analysis of activity.
The list is usually determined by demand and habit, rather than by periodic critical review. Setting out of the list of services is probably the biggest exercise in resource allocation carried out in a HO, and should not be left out of the critical analysis during the SP process. Third Stage: The SWOT matrix Once the exterior and interior analyses have been completed and integrated, the strategic plan steering group will now have a wealth of ideas about possible strategic actions that could be addressed in the strategic plan.
At this point, the issues identified in the analysis are classified into four categories to better understand what to do and in what order. This is the SWOT analysis, an acronym formed from strengths S , weaknesses W , opportunities O and threats T , which classifies the results of the analysis.
The external analysis identifies both the opportunities offered by the environment that the HO should take advantage of and use to design its action plans, in addition to threats to the HO from which it should protect itself and minimize their potential impact. The internal analysis identifies weaknesses, which are issues that the HO should try to limit or correct, and strengths, which should be the subject of strategic actions to consolidate and develop them, and from which the maximum performance should be obtained.
Fourth Stage: Strategic Alternatives Throughout the process developed so far, the planning team has been able to generate numerous alternative strategic actions. All these proposals are now formally entered in a document, without judgment regarding their feasibility or relevance, and where no idea is rejected without due consideration. Armed with this set of proposals, the strategic plan steering group begins a process which classifies and groups them into more or less defined areas of action.
These areas of action are also simultaneously identified and named depending on the type of proposals they contain. Based on the various discussions that have identified them, the strategic action selection process is fine-tuned; some proposals are discarded whereas some are linked to other proposals, thus better defining the fields of action each time.
At this stage, the wide range of options for action that were originally suggested are narrowed down to some extent, leaving aside those that clearly do not meet the minimum conditions of feasibility or do not have the desired scope.
The strategic plan steering group concludes this stage with a set of no more than 20 areas of action, which constitute the strategic options from which the subset that will definitely form the final strategy formulation is chosen. Fifth Stage: Strategic Areas and Objectives The strategic plan leader and steering group now choose the few areas on which to focus the strategic action of the HO during the coming years.
The desire to do everything blurs the desired strategic direction and reduces the pressure that can be brought to bear on each point. Thus, the areas for action chosen have to be those that will be open to intervention over this entire period.
An SA has no expiration date in a strategic plan, except under very exceptional circumstances, as discussed below. Once the SAs have been identified and denominated, the classically named strategic objectives SO are assigned to them, which are wide-ranging actions performed within a specific SA. The number of SO assigned to each SA should not exceed 5, and like them, should be conceived in such a way that they are valid for the entire lifetime of the strategic plan.
The drafting of the SO should make relatively explicit the actual direction to be followed within the SA. Its formulation is much more specific and recognizable in practical terms, although it still retains its strategic character. The SA and SO together in an organization constitute what is called its strategy formulation, which should only fill 1 or 2 pages and make explicit the strategy of the HO.
Will services be cut? If there are negative replies, the formulation should be reviewed to check whether, instead of forming a strategic plan, a plan has been created with a far more limited scope.
Operational Planning The aim of operational planning is to make each SO absolutely specific, practical and recognizable. The way to do this is by assigning operational objectives OO to each SO.
In the draft, the OOs must be completely clear and specific such that the reader can identify exactly what is intended. Intermediate goals can be established to be carried out in different stages over time.
To track their degree of completion, indicators that measure this are frequently needed. It would be unreasonable to have OOs that are a priori unachievable, because the HO would slacken and decrease its efforts.
An excessively demanding OO has a contradictory effect and demotivates the HO. Once all the OOs are formulated, the implementation of each has to be integrated with that of the others within a time-line of action that includes all of them and provides an overview of the links, timing and sequence of tasks, as well as the combined efforts that the HO has to perform at every stage. Assessing the Results Formulating a strategy is always a gamble whose outcome is uncertain.
Although the technique and the planning method may have been ideal, it remains an imperfect process due to various factors: a the strategic choice may not have been the best; b some factors may not have been sufficiently evaluated; c implementation errors may have been made; d the expected impact of the actions chosen may not have the scope initially envisaged; and e during the implementation of a strategic plan, the external environment or the HO may undergo changes that invalidate or modify the initial analysis.
Thus, the way in which the steering group plans to keep track of the degree to which the objectives have been reached is an inseparable part of the strategic plan.
Infection Prevention and Control Principles and Recommendations
The Four Principles of Health Care Ethics The basic definitions of each of the four principles of health care ethics are commonly known and used often in the English language, but they take on special meaning when being utilized in a medical setting.
All of these principles play a key role in ensuring optimal patient safety and care. Autonomy: In medicine, autonomy refers to the right of the patient to retain control over his or her body.
A health care professional can suggest or advise, but any actions that attempt to persuade or coerce the patient into making a choice are violations of this principle.
Beneficence: This principle states that health care providers must do all they can to benefit the patient in each situation.
Information for Health Professionals
All procedures and treatments recommended must be with the intention to do the most good for the patient. Non-Maleficence: Non-maleficence is probably the best known of the four principles.
This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the Subject Matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service.
If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the service of a competent professional person should be sought. Production Credits Publisher: Michael Brown Associate Editor: Maro Gartside Editorial Assistant: Teresa Reilly Production Assistant: Rebekah Linga Senior Marketing Manager: Amy Bacus Composition: Kristin E. Parker Cover Image: Malloy, Inc.
Cover printing: Includes bibliographical references and index. X pbk. Health services administration. McConnell, Charles R. Health Services Administration United States.
Health Facility Administration United States. W 84 AA1] RA L dc Printed in the United States of America. Organizational Adaptation and Survival Mergers and Affiliations Becoming a Split-Department Manager In Need of Improvement?
Art or Science? Identifying and Describing the Management Functions From Intent to Action: The Planning Path Exercise: Plans Are What? Goals, Objectives, and Procedures Case: Paid to Make Decisions? Creating Organizational Charts Exercise: Developing a Job Description Appendix 5 A: Choosing an Adequate Control Mechanism: What Fits Best?
Adjusting the Budget Sample Operating Budget: Department of Physical Therapy Exercise: Newman Eldercare Services, Inc.: Strategic Plan Appendix 8 B: Executive Summary: Committee Structures Case: Trends and Indicators Case: A Matter of Motivation: The Delayed Promotion Case: Charting a Course for Conflict Resolution: It s a Policy Notes Appendix 10 A: Training Design: Release of Information Authority and Leadership: Rising from the Ranks Case: With Friends Like This Case: The Long, Loud Silence Case: Healthcare practitioners may exercise these functions on a continuing basis in their roles as department directors or unit supervisors, or they may participate in only a few of these traditional functions, such as training and development of unit staff.
In any case, knowledge of management theory is an essential element in professional training, as no single function is ever addressed independently of all others.
In this book, emphasis is placed on definitions of terms, clarification of concepts, and, in some cases, highly detailed explanations of processes and concepts. The examples reflect typical practices in the healthcare setting.
However, all examples are fictitious and none are intended as legal, financial, or accreditation advice. Every author must decide what material to include and what level of detail to provide.
The philosopher and pundit Samuel Johnson observed, A man will turn over half a library to make one book. We have been guided by experience gained in the classroom, as well as in many training and development workshops for healthcare practitioners.
Three basic objectives determined the final selection and development of material: Acquaint the healthcare practitioner with management concepts essential to the understanding of the organizational environment within which the functions of the manager are performed. Some material challenges assumptions about such concepts as power, authority, influence, and leadership. Some of the discussions focus on relatively new concepts such as appreciative inquiry approaches to motivation and conflict management and Six Sigma applications for quality control.
Practitioners must keep abreast of developing trends in management, guarding against being the last to know.
Provide a base for further study of management concepts. Therefore, the classic literature in the field is cited, major theorists are noted, and terms are defined, especially where there is a divergence of opinion in management literature.
We all stand on the shoulders of the management giants who paved the way in the field; a return to original sources is encouraged.
Provide sufficient detail in selected areas to enable the practitioner to apply the concepts in day-to-day situations.Truthfulness is about telling the truth to someone who has the right to know the truth.
Trends and Indicators Case: In Study Session 8 there will be further examples of ethical dilemmas for you to think about and learn from.
It is the authors hope that the readers will contribute to the literature and practice of healthcare management as they grow in their professional practice and management roles. The concept of truthfulness urges the professional not to lie. Basics of the U. For example there may be times when the Creative Commons Non-Commercial Sharealike licence does not apply to any of the content even if owned by us the OU. Managers have formal authority to use organizational.
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